The Havanese Club of America, Inc.

Health

In general, Havanese are a healthy breed with a life expectancy of  12 to 15 years or more.    The vast majority of Havanese go through life with no major health issues.  This is due to diligent health testing by reputable breeders who take seriously their role as stewards and guardians of the breed.  They take the time and go to the expense of testing their breeding dogs against known heritable health problems.

The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) serves as a data base for registering results of health testing for all breeds.  If a breeder submits results for the testing recommended by their parent club, they will receive a CHIC number for that animal.

At this time The Havanese Club of America, the AKC parent club for the Havanese breed, recommends four health tests be done to get a CHIC number. These tests are:

  1.  An annual eye exam (CAER),
  2.  A hearing test (BAER),
  3.  A hip x-ray,  and
  4.  Patella (knee) certification.  

Some breeders choose to do further testing for issues they feel are of benefit as well, such as cardiac, elbows, LCPD and thyroid.  As more research and more testing becomes available the issue of recommended health testing will be revisited by the HCA.   

The HCA is so committed to the health of our dogs, in order for a breeder to list puppies for sale on our “Breeder Referral” list they must have CHIC numbers for both parents.

In addition, if the animal passes those tests, the breeder can apply to HCA for a Health Award Certificate (see TOP PAW AWARD) for that animal.  

The HCA and its members are totally committed to the health and welfare of our beloved breed.

Index to Health Issues and Testing

  • OFA Companion Animal Eye Registry (CAER)

    • OFA certification of the eyes  is one of the four tests required for the Havanese to get their CHIC number.  It is required to be repeated annually.

    • The OFA CAER exam is designed to screen dogs for diseases of the eye that have been proven or are suspected to have a heritable- genetic component. This is an exam that should be performed yearly on every Havanese before it is bred.  This exam must be performed by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist; a general practice veterinarian cannot perform the examination.

    • Albeit at low incidence, Ophthalmic diseases that can been seen in the Havanese breed include cataracts, prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid (cherry eye), retinal atrophy, retinal folds, distichia, persistent pupillary membranes, and vitreous degeneration.

  • OFA Hearing:  BAER TEST

    • OFA certification of hearing is one of the four tests required for the Havanese to get their CHIC number. It is only performed once at age 6 weeks or older.

    • The only way to test hearing is with a BAER (Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response) test.  A veterinary neurologist using special equipment administers the test.  The test is quick, and is performed in each ear separately. Most often the test can be administered without sedation, even in young puppies.

    • Hearing problems in Havanese are generally seen to be very rare.

  • Orthopedic:  OFA Patella Luxation

    • OFA certification of patellas (or knee caps) is one of the four tests required for the Havanese to get their CHIC number.  It is performed after 1 yr of age.

    • The test is easy and quick and can be done by a regular veterinarian.  

    • The  patella normally moves up and down in a groove in the lower femur bone as a dog moves his leg.   Sometimes the groove is shallow, and the patella does not seat deeply enough allowing it to slip in and out of the groove.  When this happens the dog is said to have luxating patellas.  The dislocation inhibits movement, and depending on severity, may cause pain and lameness.  Typical visible indications may be “skipping,” or unwillingness to put weight on the leg.

    • Lateral luxation is generally the result of an injury or trauma (environmental), while medial luxation is generally thought to be inherited.

    • Reputable breeders will test both parents and only breed those dogs passing the OFA test.   

  • Orthopedic:  OFA Hip Dysplasia

    • OFA certification of hips  is one of the four tests required for a Havanese to get their CHIC number. The test is performed after 2 yrs of age.

    • Hip Dysplasia is a genetically heritable disease that leads to various degrees of arthritis (also called degenerative joint disease, arthrosis, osteoarthrosis).   The only way to diagnose hip dysplasia is with an X-rays of the hips.   

    • The OFA evaluates the x-ray submitted by the radiologist and grades the hips as excellent, good, fair, borderline, mild, moderate or severe.  Ratings of excellent, good and fair are considered normal for Havanese.

    • OFA-Elbow can be performed at the same time as the hip examination at 2 years of age.

    • While orthodpedic problems can be exacerbated by environmental components, reputable breeders will test both parents and only breed those dogs passing the OFA test. 

  • Orthopedic:  LCPD—Legg Calve Perthes Disease

    • Other diseases of the hip include Legg Calve Perthes Disease (LCPD).  Testing for LCPD is not explicitly required by the HCA to obtain a CHIC number, however LCPD would be detected when X-rays are taken for the HCA required hip certification after age 2. The hip X-ray for a dog with LCPD will not be normal.

    • Legg Calve Perthes Disease is caused by lack of blood flow to the hip. LCPD is mostly seen in the young dog, usually between 4 months and 1 year of age – usually before any other health testing has been done.   

    • There are many grades of LCPD from mild to severe.  Treatment depends on the severity of the disease and can range from rest and anti-inflammatory medication to surgery.  Early intervention is important.

    • LCP is believed to be inherited, but the mode of inheritance is not known. Accordingly, reputable breeders will test both parents and only breed those dogs free of LCPD.   

  • Orthopedic: CD or Chondrodysplasia

    • Chondrodysplasia or CD is most recognized as “dwarfism”.  Many people think smaller dogs are dwarf versions of their larger  brothers, but they are not.  A true miniature breed keeps all the characteristics and body proportions of the larger dog.

    • For some breeds that man has changed through selective breeding, such as the Dachshund or Basset Hound, CD is correct for their breed standard.  

    • With dwarfism, the physical structure of the dogs has been changed to produce shortened limbs while the body remains the same.  

    • The growth plates of the CD dogs close prematurely and sometimes unevenly.  This can cause short straight legs, bowed legs or one straight leg and one bowed leg.  

    • The Havanese breed standard mandates straight legs and that feet point forward.  As CD is considered hereditary, dogs with CD should not be used for breeding.

  • OFA-Thyroid

    • OFA Thyroid testing is not required by the HCA for CHIC but is a recommended additional test in the TOP PAW AWARDS program.

    • The thyroid gland produces hormones from stimulation by the pituitary gland. These include T3 (thyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) which are  both are required for a normal metabolism. Hyperthyroidism is caused by overproduction of thyroxine, which increases metabolism.  It is rare in dogs, and most commonly a result of carcinoma of the thyroid. Hypothyroidism results from a lowered production and release of T3 and T4.  Autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism, clinically manifests itself at ~ 2 to 5 years of age.

    • Symptoms of hypothyroidism are described in: http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/endocrine/c_dg_hypothyroidism

    • Autoantibodies production is most likely an indication of a genetic form of the disease.  The marker for autoimmune thyroiditis, thyroglobulin autoantibody formation, usually appears prior to the occurrence of clinical signs. The variable onset of the presence of autoantibodies, requires periodic testing. Since the majority of affected dogs will have autoantibodies by 4 yrs of age, annual testing for the first 4 years is recommended and testing every other year thereafter is sufficient. A blood draw by a regular veterinarian is required, and analysis performed  by one of the OFA approved laboratories: http://www.offa.org/thy_labs.html. The OFA classification is as follows: http://www.offa.org/thy_class.html

    • While treatable and usually  not a life threatening condition, regular testing of both parents can reduce the incidence in the offspring.

  • OFA – Congenital and Adult Onset Cardiovascular Testing

    • OFA Cardiovascular testing is not required by the HCA for a CHIC number but congenital and adult-onset testing are recommended tests in the TOP PAW AWARDS program.

    • Cardiovascular disease is any condition of the heart or blood vessels that disrupts the normal function of the heart and vasculature to deliver oxygenated blood to the body. Heart diseases can be congenital (exist at birth) or acquired (appear later in life). Many are found to be heritable and these can be both congenital or acquired, however the exact modes of inheritance has not been precisely determined for all forms of heart disease.

    • The OFA has recently expanded the cardiac database to include testing for adult-onset cardiac disease. Testing for the new database can only be performed by a  board certified veterinary cardiologist (ACVIM/Cardiology Diplomates). As before, the congenital test is performed once at 1 year of age, while the adult-onset testing must be performed annually, thereafter.  

    • While the two health surveys conducted by the HCA suggest that incidence of congenital and acquired cardiac disease in Havanese is relatively small,  the Health Committee has continued to investigate a means of better ascertaining the origin of and degree to which it exists in the breed.

  • Sebaceous Adenitis

  • The sebacious glands are responsible for supporting and hydrating the skin and hair follicles. Sebaceous Adenitis (SA) is a disease in which a dog’s body attacks its sebaceous glands causing inflammation and ultimately their destruction.

  • While the severity may vary, the most common symptoms of SA include repeated scratching of the back, sides, or neck, and the onset of hair thinning and loss in that area. SA may however be largely asymptomatic. It is important to remember that there are many more common conditions leading to similar symptoms: these  include food and flea allergies, atopic dermatitis (“hay-fever”), and demodectic mange (mites). Onset of SA symptoms have been documented at as early as 1 year and as late as twelve years of age
  • SA is a heritable disease occurring frequently in Standard Poodles, Samoyed, Hungarian Viszla, Belgian Sheep Dogs, German Shepherds and Akitas. Some other breeds including Havanese are also believed to possess a genetic predisposition leading to a low incidence rate (0.8+/-0.2% in the 2014 Health Survey).  Studies indicate that the mode of inheritance in Standard Poodles and Akitas is likely autosomal recessive, affecting both sexes equally. It is not yet known if the same mode of heritability applies to Havanese.  If your Havanese is exhibiting symptoms it should be investigated by your vet. Educating your vet that SA can occur in Havanese may help expedite the diagnosis.
  • As no DNA test is yet available, SA is diagnosed with the help of a histological reference laboratory (typically at a major veterinary school). Given its rarity, your vet will likely first rule out more common skin disorders and allergies by performing tests such as skin cytology, skin scrapes, and food trials. Once these are ruled out, or no longer suspected, your vet will perform a skin biopsy, which will be sent out to be evaluated at a lab. The test itself is described in the OFA link below. The variable onset of SA requires annual testing if this emerges as a concern for breeding particular bloodlines
  • SA symptoms can be treated but the disease itself is not curable;  no specific treatment plan has been systematically demonstrated or proven to be any better than another. It is best managed on an individual basis, working closely with your vet. It may take quite a number of trials and errors to best manage the disease
  • For more information and examples of treatment see link below and the Zoetis PDF file:  
  • Vaccinations

Current recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) for vaccinations can be found at the following links

https://www.aaha.org/professional/resources/canine_vaccine.aspx

https://www.aaha.org/public_documents/professional/guidelines/caninevaccineguidelines.pdf

The HCA Health Committee supports these recommendations.  

Your personal veterinarian can help you in assessing the appropriate and legally required vaccination protocols for your region.